New performances of cement and cement-based materials
New analytical techniques in the research field applied to the construction materials have promoted the beginning of the design and production of new construction materials, in general, and new cements and cement-based materials, in particular.
Currently, new cements with improved mechanical and durability properties are being obtained. Then, mortars and concretes with innovative applications can be manufactured. This paper has the aim of presenting a group of cements with some of their properties improved or cements used in new applications. All of them incorporate diff erent performances of that found in common portland cements.
EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS 1
Guntix HP System
The use of alternative fuels, the short shutdown times and the emergency repairs are conditioning the planning and performing of the refractory lining of cement kilns. In Reyma –Reotix we have developed a combination of high performing ZSI low cement content refractory materials and a quick and fl exible installation system.
EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS 2
Technologically improved machinery helps saving energy and thus cost and protects the environment by limiting exhaust emissions
Cement producers have appreciated the advantages of combining various fuels for maximum cost control for many years. The use of locally available, alternative fuels liberates enterprises from their dependency on worldwide price developments on the energy market. Waste or otherwise superfluous biomaterials are mostly excess produce and available for low-cost procurement.
Since alternative fuels vary considerably in type, particle size or for example moisture content the employment of theses fuels in the cement making process is a challenging task. The German engineers of FLSmidth Pfister are experts when it comes to this: They design state-of-the-art rotor weighfeeders for dosing alternative fuels to the kiln and calciner process.
EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS 3
SOL technology achives performance records in Solnhofer Portlandzementwerke (Germany)
The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide; therefore the use of alternative fuels has a long tradition, especially in Central Europe. Portlandzementwerke Solnhofen relies on fuel cost savings by burning alternative fuels, making an important contribution to the ecologically and economically sensible utilization of waste materials. Modern kiln technologies and high-grade lining concepts enable the use of a wide range of alternative fuels.
In comparison with the use of conventional fossil fuels, refractories are subject to significantly higher stress when alternative fuels are used. Consequently, a considerably shorter useful life of the refractory lining has to be accepted in many cases. In cooperation with RHI AG, the plant successfully developed solutions for the most critical areas of the kiln. The following article outlines the plant’s experience with new refractory mixes technology.
EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS 4
New production concept with Mobile Battery Moulds (MBM)
Two leading Asian enterprises opt for the new production concept with mobile battery moulds.
Two years ago, Weckenmann Anlagentechnik GmbH & Co. KG, one of Germany’s leading outfi tters of precast plants, presented a new concept for the manufacture of large precast concrete elements that is rigorously based on production at the building site. There was great interest from a large number of potential customers and the first two plants will be delivered in the near future. The rapid population growth and increasing urbanization mean that demand is growing for the faster construction of large residential complexes worldwide. The consequence of that is the increasing use of precast concrete elements, in particular floor and wall elements, because the building process is thereby accelerated, higher building qualities are achieved and the building processes can be planned with greater reliability and security.
This knowledge prompted Weckenmann to consider a new solution. Based on many successful years of experience in the construction of battery moulds, the company developed a concept of transportable formwork for the vertical manufacturing of flat precast concrete elements in a kind of a fi eld factory.
Aggregate analysis in concrete and the application of colored concrete
Along with a constant search for a quality in concrete, an aggregate analysis results vital in order to produce a high performance composite with a very good grade of durability over time.
Once it has been evaluated several aggregates quarries, concrete producers should implement and maintain a Quality Plan in order to review the properties according to the protocols regulated locally in Ecuador (INEN, Ecuadorian Institute for Standardization) and internationally (ASTM , International Association standards Testing Materials).
This article presents an application of colored concrete, which is primarily designed for architectural concrete solutions.
Guide on Methods of Measurement and Emissions Factors in the cement industry in Spain (period 2009-2013)
In mid 2007 the Spanish cement sector began working on the development of the “Guide on methods of measurement, calculation and estimation more suitable for the determination of emissions of PRTR substances in the cement industry in Spain: Spanish cement sector guide PRTR” which tries to establish criteria when emissions reports and waste transfers off-site are required, in accordance with the requirements of Royal Decree 508/2007 of 20 April, which regulates the provision of information on releases to the E-PRTR and on IPPC permits and its subsequent amendments contained in Royal Decree 812/2007.
This guide has been updated by the Spanish cement sector twice, in 2012 and in November 2014, resulting the “Guide on methods of measurement and emissions factors in the cement industry in Spain” with which is intended:
- Identify all those pollutants for which the sector has a legal obligation to report their emissions to the atmosphere,
- For those substances considered, provide recommendations on methodologies for the determination of the annual pollutant load emitted from measurements (M) or calculations (C).
In this “Guide on methods of measurement and emissions factors in the cement industry in Spain” dated November 2014, it is set the specifi c emission factors for cement sector calculated from measurements made by the sector for the period 2009-2013 and taking into account the reality of the Spanish cement industry from both the technological and environmental. To do this, it has been used the latest available information on emissions from cement plants in Spain. In this paper, they are also referenced various methods, measurement standards and technical instruction about monitoring emissions for those pollutants for which the sector has a legal obligation to report their emissions to the atmosphere.
Concrete pavement in the Line 1 Section VI of bus dedicated platform network in Castellón (Spain)
The metropolitan area of the city of Castellón, situated East of Spain at the Mediterranean coast, has a network of dedicated bus platforms, which was conceived with two main purposes: to enhance public transport and to structure urban development. As a part of this network, a bus platform, 3.9 km long, was constructed in 2013. It is a section of Line 1, which connects the Port of Castellón to the city center.
Buses are optically guided. Therefore all the vehicles follow the same path. This channelization eff ect was considered designing the thickness of the pavement.
The platform is 7 m wide. It is a jointed plain concrete pavement, 25 cm thick, placed on an existing asphalt concrete pavement in service for some years. A part of the asphalt concrete thick was milled to accommodate the thickness of the concrete pavement to the levels of the contiguous areas. A characteristic compressive strength of 4.5 MPa at 28 days was specified for concrete.
Since the pavement was built by half widths, the only longitudinal joint is the construction one between them. It is provided with tie bars to avoid excessive opening. Transverse joints wer sawn, at a spacing of 4 m at most. The pavement was finished with a topping of resin mortar.
i.light embellished the Pompidou Málaga Centre with natural light
The Centre Pompidou Málaga is the fi rst Pompidou subsidiary abroad. The architects has designed a versatile space that invites citizens to free access to all areas of relationships, activities and information to visitors and allows controlled access to the exhibition spaces. The design avoids leading roles trying to create spaces to serve the contemplation of works of art. The main feature of Centre Pompidou Málaga is its underground status. The inner courtyard is surrounded by an i.light envelope that soften the light and thermal outer conditions. This high aesthetic and innovative solution symbolize the spirit of both companies.